International Journal of Trichology International Journal of Trichology
 Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
  Home | About IJT | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Online submission | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us | Login   

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 122-123  

Blowing bubbles: Dermoscopy of bubble hair

Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

Date of Web Publication21-Aug-2017

Correspondence Address:
Jamie B MacKelfresh
Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1525 Clifton Road, 1st Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijt.ijt_11_17

Rights and Permissions

Exposing wet hair to high temperatures can create gas bubbles within the hair shaft, leading to brittle, dry hairs in a disorder known as bubble hair abnormality. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman who presented for hair breakage over her crown. She regularly dried her damp hair with a blow dryer. Dermoscopy revealed multiple bubbles within the hair shaft, and diagnosis of bubble hair abnormality was confirmed by light microscopy. Our unusual case highlights the ease of acquisition of this abnormality by means of a common hair dryer, and the utility of dermoscopy to make a fast and accurate diagnosis within the office.

Keywords: Bubble hair, dermoscopy, hair styling, heat damage, trichogram

How to cite this article:
Albers LN, Maley AM, MacKelfresh JB. Blowing bubbles: Dermoscopy of bubble hair. Int J Trichol 2017;9:122-3

How to cite this URL:
Albers LN, Maley AM, MacKelfresh JB. Blowing bubbles: Dermoscopy of bubble hair. Int J Trichol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Mar 29];9:122-3. Available from: https://www.ijtrichology.com/text.asp?2017/9/3/122/213334

   Introduction Top

Bubble hair is an acquired hair shaft abnormality due to gas bubbles that develop in wet hairs following exposure to heat. The development of bubbles in the hair shaft results in dry, brittle hairs that break easily. We report an interesting case of this unusual abnormality and highlight the utility of dermoscopy for diagnosis.

   Case Report Top

A 61-year-old Caucasian female with no personal or family history of alopecia presented with a chief complaint of dry scalp and hair breakage for 2 months. She had been using a color and shine enhancing shampoo recently and regularly used a blow dryer, but denied other heat styling practices. The patient had not experienced any symptoms of pruritus or pain. Physical examination revealed a focal patch of short, broken hairs localized to her crown. There was no erythema, scale, or other scalp abnormalities, and there was no other area of hair loss on her scalp or body.

Using dermoscopy, hair shafts clearly displayed irregularly spaced bubbles [Figure 1]. Light microscopy examination of the trichogram revealed that the mid and distal portion of many hairs contained irregularly spaced bubbles which expanded and thinned the cortex [Figure 2]. Diagnosis of bubble hair abnormality due to heat exposure from a blow dryer was made. The patient was advised to discontinue all heat-related practices. At follow-up 7 months later, the patient reported complete resolution of her symptoms with no continued hair breakage and no noticeable areas of thinning.
Figure 1: Irregular bubbles in hair shafts observed on dermoscopy

Click here to view
Figure 2: Trichogram showing irregularly spaced bubbles expanding and thinning the cortex of the hair shaft on light microscopy (×10)

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

Bubble hair can develop when wet hairs are exposed to just 125°C, a functional temperature of many hair styling appliances,[1] and resolves with discontinuation of heat styling. Previous reports have noted the usefulness of dermoscopic analysis of bubble hair, with results ranging from “white oval spaces with Swiss-cheese structure”[2] to “dysmorphia of the distal hair shaft,”[3] yet suggest that light microscopy may offer a clearer image and definitive diagnosis. While a trichogram examined under light microscopy can be used to make the diagnosis, our case demonstrates that dermoscopy is a fast and accurate in-office diagnostic tool for bubble hair abnormality.

   Conclusion Top

We recommend that practitioners have a low level of suspicion for bubble hair abnormality and consider the diagnosis in any case of hair breakage with a possibility of thermal injury. We highlight the utility of using dermoscopy to accurately diagnose this disorder and demonstrate that this technique can reveal bubbles within the distal hair shaft similar to those seen on light microscopy of the trichogram.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Gummer CL. Bubble hair: A cosmetic abnormality caused by brief, focal heating of damp hair fibres. Br J Dermatol 1994;131:901-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
Miteva M, Tosti A. Dermatoscopy of hair shaft disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013;68:473-81.  Back to cited text no. 2
Wallace MP, de Berker DA. Hair diagnoses and signs: The use of dermatoscopy. Clin Exp Dermatol 2010;35:41-6.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

This article has been cited by
1 A review of bubble hair deformity
Yumeng M. Li, Julio A. Diaz-Perez, Aderonke Obayomi, Fabrizio Galimberti, Paolo Romanelli, Antonella Tosti
International Journal of Dermatology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Hair Loss
Reese L. Imhof, Dawn Marie R. Davis, Megha M. Tollefson
Pediatrics in Review. 2020; 41(11): 570
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 An ‘airy hairy’ problem
R. J. Heath, A. Bakshi, C. Sutton, L. C. Stewart, S. N. Cohen
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. 2020; 45(2): 229
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
   Case Report
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded33    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal