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International Journal of Trichology International Journal of Trichology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-February 2023
Volume 15 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-42

Online since Thursday, April 20, 2023

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EDITORIAL  

Ignorism p. 1
Ralph Michel Trueb
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_125_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

An updated review on current treatment of alopecia areata and newer therapeutic options Highly accessed article p. 3
Karan Malhotra, Bhushan Madke
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_28_21  
Alopecia areata (AA) is a dermatological disease that causes nonscarring hair loss. It can occur at any age and has an unpredictable and variable evolution in individuals. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the novel therapies currently being used, as well as upcoming therapeutic options in the treatment of AA.
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Positioning of low alcohol or alcohol-free minoxidil formulation for the management of androgenetic alopecia: Indian perspective p. 13
Satish Udare, Anita Baruah, Anurag Mathur, TR Dayananda, Kapil Jain, Manas Ranjan Puhan, Pawan Bajaj, Richa Sharma, Sanjay Ramanbhai Gamit, V Ramesh, V Venugopal, Vignesh Karthik, Monil Yogesh Neena Gala, Snehal Muchhala, Amey Mane
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_54_22  
Topical minoxidil is used for treating different hair disorders. Even though it is an effective therapy, many patients show poor compliance due to the cost, side effects, and duration of treatment. Topical minoxidil is the mainstay treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Recently, low alcohol or alcohol-free topical minoxidil formulation has proven to be an alternative for patients suffering from AGA, including those with poor compliance with other therapies. Thus, the current article provides the positioning of low alcohol or alcohol-free topical minoxidil to manage AGA in Indian clinical practice.
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INTERVENTION STUDIES Top

Hair regrowth with novel hemp extract: A case series p. 18
Gregory Luke Smith
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_34_22  
Introduction: The endocannabinoid system (ECS), discovered in the 1990s, is a system involved with maintaining cellular homeostasis by down-regulating the damaging inflammatory responses and upregulating regenerative processes. Cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and cannabidivarin (CBDV) are all phytocannabinoids found in varying quantities in hemp extract. These three cannabinoids have novel therapeutic effects on hair regrowth through the ECS. The method of action is different from and synergistic with current hair regrowth therapies. The three cannabinoids are fat-soluble and poorly absorbed past the epidermis, but topical application easily reaches hair follicles where they act as partial or full CB1 antagonist and agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and vanilloid receptor-4 (TRPV4). All these ECS receptors relate to hair follicle function. Blocking the CB1 receptor on the hair follicle has been shown to result in hair shaft elongation; in addition, the hair follicle cycle (anagen, catagen, and telogen phases) is controlled by TRPV1. The effects of CBD on hair growth are dose dependent and higher doses may result in premature entry into the catagen phase through a different receptor known as TRPV4. CBD has also been shown to increase Wnt signaling, which causes dermal progenitor cells to differentiate into new hair follicles and maintains anagen phase of the hair cycle. Objective: This study was conducted on subjects with androgenetic alopecia (AGA), as follow-up to a prior published study using hemp extract high in CBD without CBDV or THCV. That study showed an average 93.5% increase in hair numbers after 6 months of use. This subsequent study is being done to determine if daily topical application of a hemp-oil high in CBD, THCV, and CBDV concentrations would result in improved hair regrowth in the area of the scalp most affected by AGA. Materials and Methods: A case series study was done of 31 (15 men and 16 women, 27 Caucasian, 2 Asian, and 1 mixed race) subjects with AGA. They used a once-daily topical hemp extract formulation, averaging about 33 mg/day for 6 months. A hair count of the greatest area of alopecia was carried out before treatment was started and again after 6 months of treatment. To facilitate consistent hair count analysis, a permanent tattoo was placed at the point for maximum hair loss on the scalp. The subjects were also asked to qualitatively rate their psychosocial perception of “scalp coverage” improvement after the study was completed. The qualitative scale included “very unhappy,” “unhappy,” “neutral,” “happy,” and “very happy.” The subjects were photographed in a standard manner before and after the study. The photographs were compared for improvements in “scalp coverage” by an independent physician. The qualitative scale included “none,” “mild,” “moderate,” and “extensive” improvement of scalp coverage. Results: The results revealed that all subjects had some regrowth. This ranged from 31.25% (from 16 to 21 hairs) to 2000% (from 1 to 21 hairs). The average increase was statistically significant 246% (15.07 hairs/cm2 increase) in men and 127% (16.06 hairs/cm2) in women. There were no reported adverse effects. All subjects rated their psychosocial perception of the effects of the hair loss, as “happy” or “very happy.” Independent review of the photographs revealed evidence of “mild” to “extensive” scalp coverage improvements for all of the subjects. Conclusion: Although the exact mechanism of therapeutic effects is not known, THCV and CBDV are most likely functioning as full CB1 receptor neutral antagonists and CBD is most likely functioning as a partial CB1 receptor antagonist and potentially through Wnt messaging. All three cannabinoids were functioning as TRPV1 agonists. The addition of menthol through the peppermint extract is probably acting through promoting a rapid onset of anagen phase. This topical hemp formulation was superior to oral finasteride, 5% minoxidil once daily foam and CBD topical extract alone. Since this hemp extract works through novel mechanisms entirely different from both finasteride and minoxidil, it can be used in conjunction with these current drugs and would be expected to have synergistic effects. However, safety and efficacy of this combination would be to be evaluated.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in androgenetic alopecia – A randomized controlled trial p. 25
Dharm Mansukh Sondagar, Hita H Mehta, Rashmiben Sabbirali Agharia, Milan K Jhavar
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_5_22  
Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is caused by the susceptibility of hair follicles to androgenic miniaturization, which leads to hair loss. The most common modalities for the treatment of AGA include the use of topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a newer modality of treatment for AGA. We tried to evaluate the added benefit of LLLT in AGA compared with topical minoxidil 5% alone. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of LLLT combined with topical 5% minoxidil in AGA versus topical 5% minoxidil used alone. Materials and Methods: After ethics committee approval, 54 patients of AGA were randomly divided into two groups. Group A participants received LLLT therapy twice a week plus topical 5% minoxidil and Group B participants received only minoxidil 5% solution. Both the groups were followed up for 16 weeks and evaluated with gross photographs, TrichoScan analysis, and dermoscopy to look for any improvement in hair density. Results: After 16 weeks, improvement in hair density of 14.78% ± 10.93% in Group A was recorded compared to 11.43% ± 6.43% in Group B. However, while comparing both means, P value was 0.45 which was not significant. The physician global assessment and patient satisfaction score revealed no significant difference between both the groups. Conclusion: Although LLLT appears to be safe and effective in the treatment of male pattern hair loss, we did not observe any significant difference in terms of improvement in hair density between both the groups.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Uncommon foot pain: A rare case of sequential migration of cutaneous pili migrans p. 33
Kelsen dos Santos Sales, Anacélia Gomes de Matos Mota, Camilla Teixeira Pinheiro Gusmao, Howard Lopes Ribeiro Junior
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_4_21  
Cutaneous pili migrans (CPM) is an uncommon condition in which a hair fragment penetrates the skin and produces a creeping lesion similarly of cutaneous larva migrans associated with local pain. There are few reports of CPM in the literature, and none visually describes the migration of the hair shaft in the epidermis associated with pain. Herein, we showed the first report describing a case of an in situ sequential migration of CPM in an adult patient.
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Slivers of hair – A clue to uncover silver hair syndromes p. 36
Nivetha Ganeshan, Muthukumaran Rajaram, Madhavan Ramamoorthy, Bharathi Sukumar
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_181_20  
Silver hair syndromes (SHS) consist of rare autosomal recessive disorders, Chediak–Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome (GS), and Elejalde disease. CHS is a disorder of vesicle trafficking; characterized by silvery hair, diffuse pigment dilution, immunodeficiency, bleeding diathesis, neurological manifestations, and an accelerated phase due to lymphohistiocytic infiltration. GS is characterized by hypopigmentation of skin and hair, with large clumps of pigment in the hair shaft. There are three types of GS. GS1 and GS2 show neurologic and hematologic impairments; GS3 is restricted to the skin. Some authors suggest that Elejalde syndrome is synonymous with GS Type 1. Here, we report two cases who presented with silver-gray hair but with varied clinical manifestations. With a light microscopic examination of the hair and peripheral smear, a diagnosis has been made. This report highlights the importance of hair shaft microscopy, an inexpensive, noninvasive, and simple tool in the diagnosis of SHS.
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Mesotherapy with bicalutamide: A new treatment for androgenetic alopecia p. 39
Alba Gomez-Zubiaur, Juan Jose Andres-Lencina, Víctor Cabezas, Cristina Corredera, Fabio di Brisco, Blanca Ferrer, Ana Rodriguez-Villa, Daniela Subiabre-Ferrer, Cristian Valenzuela, David Vega Diez, Jose Maria Ricart
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_78_21  
Bicalutamide is a selective androgen receptor antagonist. To date, it has been used orally with good efficacy results, but not in mesotherapy. In our center, we assessed whether patients undergoing bicalutamide mesotherapy showed positive responses and tolerated the local administration of bicalutamide. Six premenopausal women, with a mean age of 35.7 years and clinical diagnosis of Olsen Grade II or III female androgenetic alopecia accompanied by significant seborrhea were treated with 1 ml bicalutamide 0.5% mesotherapy. Three monthly sessions were performed. A subtle improvement in hair density was described after the third session. The overall satisfaction of the patients with the treatment was 6.3, on a scale of 1–10. Premenopausal women require several therapeutic approaches to combat severe androgenetic alopecia. Our data showed that bicalutamide mesotherapy was well tolerated and welcomed by the patients; we, therefore, provide a new tool for the management of this pathology.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Proposition of a new terminology of senile alopecia: Physiologic alopecia p. 41
Yazid Bourezane, Ines Bourezane
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_54_21  
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