International Journal of Trichology International Journal of Trichology
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Hair cosmetics: An overview
Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias
January-March 2015, 7(1):2-15
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.153450  PMID:25878443
Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity.
  93 77,353 764
Alopecia areata: Review of epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and new treatment options
Evan Darwin, Penelope A Hirt, Raymond Fertig, Brett Doliner, Gina Delcanto, Joaquin J Jimenez
March-April 2018, 10(2):51-60
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_99_17  PMID:29769777
Alopecia areata (AA) is a complex autoimmune condition that causes nonscarring hair loss. It typically presents with sharply demarcated round patches of hair loss and may present at any age. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and new treatment options of AA, with a focus on the immunologic mechanism underlying the treatment. While traditional treatment options such as corticosteroids are moderately effective, a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis may lead to the development of new treatments that are more directed and effective against AA. Sources were gathered from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database using the keywords: alopecia, alopecia areata, hair loss, trichoscopy, treatments, pathogenesis, and epidemiology.
  68 29,924 608
Dermoscopy in female androgenic alopecia: Method standardization and diagnostic criteria
Adriana Rakowska, Monika Slowinska, Elzbieta Kowalska-Oledzka, Malgorzata Olszewska, Lidia Rudnicka
July-December 2009, 1(2):123-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.58555  PMID:20927234
Objective: Establishing the trichoscopy criteria of female androgenic alopecia (FAGA). Design: Trichoscopy images were retrospectively evaluated. Setting: Dermatologic hospital-based clinic and private practice offices. Patients and methods: One hundred and thirty-one females (59 with androgenic alopecia, 33 with chronic telogen effluvium (CTE), 39 healthy controls). The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and confirmed by histopatology. Main Outcome Measure: Trichoscopy results obtained in frontal, occipital and both temporal areas of the scalp under a 20-fold and 70-fold magnification, including average hair thickness, number of 'yellow dots' and vellus hairs, number of hairs in one pilosebaceous unit and percentage of follicular ostia with perifollicullar hyperpigmentation. Results: Average hair thickness in frontal area versus occiput was, respectively, 0.061 ± 0.008 mm versus 0.058 ± 0.007 mm in healthy controls, 0.047 ± 0.007 mm versus 0.052 ± 0.008 mm in androgenic alopecia and 0.056 ± 0.007 mm versus 0.053 ± 0.009 mm in CTE. Mean percentage of thin hairs (< 0.03 mm) in androgenic alopecia was 20.9 ± 12% and was significantly higher than in healthy controls (6.15 ± 4.6%, P < 0.001) or in CTE (10.4 ± 3.9%, P < 0.001). The number of yellow dots, pilosebaceous units with only one hair and with perifollicular hyperpigmentation was significantly increased in androgenic alopecia. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis was performed to establish diagnostic criteria for FAGA. Conclusion: FAGA may be differentiated from CTE based on trichoscopy criteria. Major criteria are ratio of (1) more than four yellow dots in four images (70-fold magnification) in the frontal area, (2) lower average hair thickness in the frontal area compared to the occiput and (3) more than 10% of thin hairs (below 0.03 mm) in the frontal area. Minor criteria encompass increased frontal to occipital ratio of (1) single-hair pilosebaceous units, (2) vellus hairs and (3) perifollicular discoloration. Fulfillment of two major criteria or one major and two minor criteria allows to diagnose FAGA based on trichoscopy with a 98% specificity.
  62 9,773 409
A randomized evaluator blinded study of effect of microneedling in androgenetic alopecia: A pilot study
Rachita Dhurat, MS Sukesh, Ganesh Avhad, Ameet Dandale, Anjali Pal, Poonam Pund
January-March 2013, 5(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.114700  PMID:23960389
Introduction: Dermal papilla (DP) is the site of expression of various hair growth related genes. Various researches have demonstrated the underlying importance of Wnt proteins and wound growth factors in stimulating DP associated stem cells. Microneedling works by stimulation of stem cells and inducing activation of growth factors. Materials and Methods: Hundred cases of mild to moderate (III vertex or IV) androgenetic alopecia (AGA) were recruited into 2 groups. After randomization one group was offered weekly microneedling treatment with twice daily 5% minoxidil lotion (Microneedling group); other group was given only 5% minoxidil lotion. After baseline global photographs, the scalp were shaved off to ensure equal length of hair shaft in all. Hair count was done in 1 cm 2 targeted fixed area (marked with tattoo) at baseline and at end of therapy (week 12). The 3 primary efficacy parameters assessed were: Change from baseline hair count at 12 weeks, patient assessment of hair growth at 12 weeks, and investigator assessment of hair growth at 12 weeks. A blinded investigators evaluated global photographic response. The response was assessed by 7- point scale. Results: (1) Hair counts - The mean change in hair count at week 12 was significantly greater for the Microneedling group compared to the Minoxidil group (91.4 vs 22.2 respectively). (2) Investigator evaluation - Forty patients in Microneedling group had +2 to +3 response on 7-point visual analogue scale, while none showed the same response in the Minoxidil group. (3) Patient evaluation - In the Microneedling group, 41 (82%) patients reported more than 50% improvement versus only 2 (4.5%) patients in the Minoxidil group. Unsatisfied patients to conventional therapy for AGA got good response with Microneedling treatment. Conclusion: Dermaroller along with Minoxidil treated group was statistically superior to Minoxidil treated group in promoting hair growth in men with AGA for all 3 primary efficacy measures of hair growth. Microneedling is a safe and a promising tool in hair stimulation and also is useful to treat hair loss refractory to Minoxidil therapy.
  62 212,628 827
Oxidative stress in ageing of hair
Ralph M Trueb
January-June 2009, 1(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.51923  PMID:20805969
Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.
  44 19,139 668
Trichoscopy in alopecias: Diagnosis simplified
Nilam Jain, Bhavana Doshi, Uday Khopkar
October-December 2013, 5(4):170-178
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.130385  PMID:24778525
Trichoscopy is the term coined for dermoscopic imaging of the scalp and hair. This novel diagnostic technique, both simple and non-invasive, can be used as a handy bed side tool for diagnosing common hair and scalp disorders. Trichoscopic observations can be broadly grouped as hair signs, vascular patterns, pigment patterns and interfollicular patterns. In this article, we have briefly described the trichoscopic findings in the common categories of cicatricial and non-cicatricial alopecias such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, tinea capitis, trichotillomania, lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus and hair shaft disorders. Besides diagnosing alopecia, it has the potential for obviating unnecessary biopsies and when a biopsy is still needed it is helpful in choosing an ideal biopsy site. Moreover, trichoscopy is a valuable tool for evaluating the treatment response photographically at each follow-up. The last statement here is deleted as asked.
  39 33,977 1,336
Hair evaluation methods: Merits and demerits
Rachita Dhurat, Punit Saraogi
July-December 2009, 1(2):108-119
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.58553  PMID:20927232
Various methods are available for evaluation (for diagnosis and/or quantification) of a patient presenting with hair loss. Hair evaluation methods are grouped into three main categories: Non-invasive methods (e.g., questionnaire, daily hair counts, standardized wash test, 60-s hair count, global photographs, dermoscopy, hair weight, contrasting felt examination, phototrichogram, TrichoScan and polarizing and surface electron microscopy), semi-invasive methods (e.g., trichogram and unit area trichogram) and invasive methods (e.g., scalp biopsy). Any single method is neither 'ideal' nor feasible. However, when interpreted with caution, these are valuable tools for patient diagnosis and monitoring. Daily hair counts, wash test, etc. are good methods for primary evaluation of the patient and to get an approximate assessment of the amount of shedding. Some methods like global photography form an important part of any hair clinic. Analytical methods like phototrichogram are usually possible only in the setting of a clinical trial. Many of these methods (like the scalp biopsy) require expertise for both processing and interpreting. We reviewed the available literature in detail in light of merits and demerits of each method. A plethora of newer methods is being introduced, which are relevant to the cosmetic industry/research. Such methods as well as metabolic/hormonal evaluation are not included in this review.
  39 13,756 1,093
Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system
Desmond J Tobin
July-December 2009, 1(2):83-93
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.58550  PMID:20927229
Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations.
  32 13,357 556
Randomized comparison of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized alopecia areata
CM Kuldeep, Himanshu Singhal, Ashok Kumar Khare, Asit Mittal, Lalit K Gupta, Anubhav Garg
January-June 2011, 3(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.82123  PMID:21769231
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring, patchy loss of hair at scalp and elsewhere. Its pathogenesis is uncertain; however, auto-immunity has been exemplified in various studies. Familial incidence of AA is 10-42%, but in monozygotic twins is 50%. Local steroids (topical / intra-lesional) are very effective in treatment of localized AA. Aim: To compare hair regrowth and side effects of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized AA. Materials and Methods: 105 patients of localized AA were initially registered but 27 were drop out. So, 78 patients allocated at random in group A (28), B (25) and C (25) were prescribed topical betamethasone valerate foam (0.1%) twice daily, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/ml) every 3 weeks and tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) twice daily, respectively, for 12 weeks. They were followed for next12 weeks. Hair re-growth was calculated using "HRG Scale"; scale I- (0-25%), S II-(26-50%), S III - (51-75%) and S IV- (75-100%). Results: Hair re-growth started by 3 weeks in group B (Scale I: P<0.03), turned satisfactory at 6 weeks in group A and B (Scale I: P<0.005, Scale IV: P<0.001)), good at 9 weeks (Scale I: P<0.0005, Scale IV: P<0.00015), and better by 12 weeks of treatment (Scale I: P<0.000021, Scale IV: P<0.000009) in both A and B groups. At the end of 12 weeks follow-up hair re-growth (>75%, HRG IV) was the best in group B (15 of 25, 60%), followed by A (15 of 28, 53.6%) and lastly group-C (Nil of 25, 0%) patients. Few patients reported mild pain and atrophy at injection sites, pruritus and burning with betamethasone valerate foam and tacrolimus. Conclusion: Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide is the best, betamethasone valerate foam is better than tacrolimus in management of localized AA.
  29 11,729 205
Quality of life assessment in patients with androgenetic alopecia
Sanjeev Gupta, Ishan Goyal, Aneet Mahendra
July-August 2019, 11(4):147-152
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_6_19  PMID:31523105
Background: Male-pattern alopecia (MPA) or androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a commonly encountered dermatological condition present in males and is less common among females. Although AGA is a physiological condition, its impact on person's self-esteem is so great that it cannot be ignored. It has a significant affect over a variety of physiological and social aspects of one's life and even on the individual's overall quality of life (QOL). Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to study the clinical profile of 200 male patients having MPA and to access its impact on QOL using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and hair-specific Skindex-29. Materials and Methods: Clinical profiles of 200 patients were studied, and QOL assessment was done using the DLQI and hair-specific Skindex-29 scales. Results: Of 200 cases of MPA, majority (41.5%) of the patients belonged to the age group of 21–30 years. Smoking, alcoholism, dietary habits, nature of work, and seasonal variation did not seem to affect the incidence of MPA. Positive family history of MPA was observed in 50% of patients. A mean DLQI score of 13.52 was recorded in the study. The main affected parameter was personal relations with mean score of 2.3. Maximum number of patients had DLQI score between 11 and 20. MPA was observed in 50% of patients. In the study, the mean hair-specific Skindex-29 score was found to be 75.62. The different subscale parameters in Skindex-29 were symptoms, functions, emotions; with respective score of 22.1 ± 5.025, 25.89 ± 4.814, and 27.73 ± 5.942. The major subscales affected were symptoms with a mean score of 3.14. Both hair-specific Skindex-29 and DLQI had a significant correlation, thereby suggesting that AGA significantly affects patient's QOL. Conclusion: AGA harmfully affected the patient's QOL which warns the physicians to pay more attention to QOL impairment in patients of AGA for the better understanding of the disease burden on individual patients.
  29 6,087 118
Serum biotin levels in women complaining of hair loss
Ralph M Trüeb
April-June 2016, 8(2):73-77
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.188040  PMID:27601860
Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss.
  27 13,383 64
Premature graying of hair: Review with updates
Anagha Bangalore Kumar, Huma Shamim, Umashankar Nagaraju
September-October 2018, 10(5):198-203
Premature graying of hair (PGH) is defined as graying of hair before the age of 20 years in Caucasians and before 30 years in African American population. It can severely affect the self-esteem of an individual. The exact etiopathogenesis remains unknown, although it has been associated with premature aging disorders, atopy, and autoimmune diseases. Patients, who present with PGH, should be assessed for syndromes and metabolism diseases. Hair dyes remain the main modality of the treatment for cosmetic concerns after nutritional supplementation.
  27 35,749 598
Topical immunotherapy in alopecia areata
Gurcharan Singh, MS Lavanya
January-June 2010, 2(1):36-39
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.66911  PMID:21188022
Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata.
  27 10,024 395
N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of trichotillomania
Ana Rita Rodrigues-Barata, Antonella Tosti, Antonio Rodríguez-Pichardo, Francisco Camacho-Martínez
July-September 2012, 4(3):176-178
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.100090  PMID:23180931
Trichotillomania is as medical condition caused by the patient himself by pulling out of is own hair, resulting in a perceptible hair loss pattern that frequently is associated with other psychiatric processes. Generally has a chronic course in most patients, and a challenging therapeutical management. There are several available options for is treatment, but the clinical response is not satisfactory in many patients. Recently, N-acetylcisteine, a glutamate modulator, has shown efficacy in the treatment of trichotillomania and other compulsive behaviors, and is considered a new alternative in the management of this condition. We describe two patients with trichotillomania successfully treated with N-acetylcysteine. Nevertheless, further studies need to be conducted to establish the appropriate treatment regimen and to evaluate it long-term efficacy in improving this chronic condition.
  25 9,724 77
Male androgenetic alopecia: Population-based study in 1,005 subjects
DS Krupa Shankar, M Chakravarthi, Rachana Shilpakar
July-December 2009, 1(2):131-133
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.58556  PMID:20927235
Context: Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common condition. There is limited information on its prevalence and patterns. Aims: (1). To find the prevalence and most common pattern (2). To correlate the age and pattern of alopecia. Settings and Design: Population-based study. Materials and Methods: This is a population-based study from the public. The selection was random. The method involved was asking the age and, if found to between 30 and 50 years, the scalp was examined for alopecia and the pattern was determined using the Hamilton Norwood classification. Results: Of 1,005 subjects, the youngest was 30 years old and the oldest 49 years old, with a mean age of 37.05 6 standard deviation 4.79. 39.2% of the subjects were in the age group of 30-35, 34.4% in the 36-40 year age group, 26.0% in the 41-45 years age group and 0.4% in the 46-50 years age group. Five hundred and eighty-three subjects (58%) had AGA, the most common type being grade II (27.27%) followed by grade I (22.12%) and grade III (21.78%). 47.5% ( P = 0.003) had pattern alopecia in the 30-35 years age group, 58.7% in the 36-40 years age group ( P = 0.8) and 73.2% in the 41-45 years age group ( P ≤ 0.001). In the 30-35 years age group, grade I was 51.18%, grade II was 42.77% and grade VI was 18.52%. In the 41-45 years age group, grade I was 13.38%, grade III was 33.85% and grade VI was 66.67%. Conclusions: Fifty-eight percent of the male population aged 30-50 years had AGA. Its grade increased with increase in age. 12.9% of the male population had grades IV to VI, and would benefit from hair transplantation while 44.1% had grades I to III and are potential candidates for medical treatment
  25 7,240 307
Platelet-rich plasma as a potential treatment for noncicatricial alopecias
Gkini Maria-Angeliki, Kouskoukis Alexandros-Efstratios, Rigopoulos Dimitris, Kouskoukis Konstantinos
April-June 2015, 7(2):54-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.160098  PMID:26180449
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and alopecia areata (AA) are common hair loss disorders affecting both men and women. Despite available therapeutic options, search for new, more effective treatment is constant. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could be effective in promoting hair growth: (1) To present PRP and its mechanism of action in promoting hair growth and (2) to evaluate its preparation methods and its therapeutic potential in noncicatrial alopecias in a systematic review. An international bibliography search, through five databases, was conducted to find articles regarding PRP's action on hair loss. Growth factors in platelets' granules of PRP bind in the bulge area of hair follicle, promoting hair growth. In our systematic review, 14 articles matched our criteria, including 12 articles for AGA and two for AA. PRP is a potential useful therapeutic tool for alopecias, without major adverse effects. Nevertheless, due to the small number of conducted trials, further studies are required to investigate its efficacy.
  25 9,327 308
Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia
Tobias W Fischer, Ralph M Trüeb, Gabriella Hänggi, Marcello Innocenti, Peter Elsner
October-December 2012, 4(4):236-245
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.111199  PMID:23766606
Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test. Results: Five clinical studies showed positive effects of a topical melatonin solution in the treatment of AGA in men and women while showing good tolerability: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days ( P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm² M3: 159/cm² M6: 173/cm²) ( P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant ( P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% ( P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed. Conclusions: Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was good, the topical application of a cosmetic melatonin solution can be considered as a treatment option in androgenetic alopecia.
  24 18,527 248
The shampoo pH can affect the hair: Myth or Reality?
Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias, Andreia Munck de Almeida, Patricia Cecato, Andre Ricardo Adriano, Janine Pichler
July-September 2014, 6(3):95-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.139078  PMID:25210332
Aim: Dermatologists most frequently prescribe shampoos for the treatment of hair shed and scalp disorders. Prescription of hair care products is often focused on improving scalp hair density, whereas the over-the-counter products focus on hair damage prevention. Little is taught in medical schools about the hair cosmetics, so that the prescriptions are based only on the treatment of the scalp and usually disregards the hair fi ber health. Materials and Methods: In this work, we review the current literature about the mode of action of a low-pH shampoo regarding the hair shaft's health and analyze the pH of 123 shampoos of international brands. Results: All shampoo pH values ranged from 3.5 to 9.0. 38.21% of all 123 shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 29.9-47%) and 61.78% presented a pH > 5.5. 26 anti-dandruff shampoos were analyzed. About 19.23% presented pH ≤ 5.5.(IC: 7.4-37.6%). 80.77% of all anti-dandruffs shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. The dermatological shampoo group ( n = 19) presented 42.10% with pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 21.8-64.6%), and 57.90% with pH > 5.5. Among the commercial (popular) products ( n = 96), 34.37% presented pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 25.4-44.3%) and 65.62% presented pH > 5.5. 15 professional products (used in hair salons) were analyzed, of which 75% had a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 18-65, 4%), and 25% had a pH > 5.5. 100% of the children's shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. Conclusions: Alkaline pH may increase the negative electrical charge of the hair fiber surface and, therefore, increase friction between the fibers. This may lead to cuticle damage and fiber breakage. It is a reality and not a myth that lower pH of shampoos may cause less frizzing for generating less negative static electricity on the fiber surface. Interestingly, only 38% of the popular brand shampoos against 75% of the salons shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.0. Pediatric shampoos had the pH of 7.0 because of the "no-tear" concept. There is no standardized value for the final pH. The authors believe that it is important to reveal the pH value on the shampoo label, but studies are needed to establish the best pH range for both the scalp and the hair fiber's health.
  24 19,716 227
A comparative study of microneedling with platelet-rich plasma plus topical minoxidil (5%) and topical minoxidil (5%) alone in androgenetic alopecia
Kaksha B Shah, Aarti N Shah, Rekha B Solanki, Ranjan C Raval
January-March 2017, 9(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_75_16  PMID:28761259
Context: There are very few studies evaluating efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in hair restoration and its combination with microneedling. As far as ascertained, there is no study to evaluate efficacy of microneedling with PRP plus topical minoxidil (5%) versus topical minoxidil (5%) alone in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Aims: This study aims (1) to compare the efficacy of (a) topical minoxidil (5%) alone and (b) topical minoxidil (5%) + microneedling with PRP in men between 18 and 50 years with AGA Grade III to V vertex (Norwood–Hamilton scale) and (2) to perform objective and subjective evaluation based on clinical improvement and photographic evidence. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the outpatient department of dermatology, venereology, and leprology in tertiary care hospital. It was open, prospective study. Subjects and Methods: Fifty patients with AGA were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. These patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients each and were given following treatment: (i) Group A: topical minoxidil (5%) alone and (ii) Group B: topical minoxidil (5%) + microneedling with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Statistical Analysis Used: Patients were assessed before starting the treatment and at the end of 6 months on the basis of (a) Patient's self-assessment based on standardized seven-point scale compared with baseline (b) Physician's assessment based on standardized seven-point scale of hair growth compared with baseline. Results: There was a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in both patients' assessment and investigator's assessment in Group B as compared to Group A at the end of 6 months. Conclusions: Microneedling with PRP is safe, effective, and a promising tool for the management of AGA.
  24 11,613 232
Loose anagen hair syndrome
Rachita P Dhurat, Deepal J Deshpande
July-December 2010, 2(2):96-100
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.77513  PMID:21712911
Loose anagen syndrome (LAS) is a benign, self-limiting condition where anagen hairs are easily and painlessly extracted. It is mainly reported in childhood; however, it may variably present in adulthood as well. The presence of anagen hair devoid of its sheath and with 'floppy sock appearance' is a characteristic feature of loose anagen hair (LAH) on trichogram. LAH can be seen in normal population and in alopecia areata. The percentage of LAH in LAS is more than 50%. The histopathological findings show clefting between the layers of hair and are very useful in differentiating LAS from alopecia areata. Here, a review on the diagnostic criteria and practical guidelines are discussed so as to enable the trichologist in managing this benign, self-limiting condition and differentiating it from the other causes of non-scarring alopecias.
  22 11,280 201
Scalp condition impacts hair growth and retention via oxidative stress
Ralph M Trueb, Jim P Henry, Mike G Davis, Jim R Schwartz
November-December 2018, 10(6):262-270
DOI:10.4103/ijt.ijt_57_18  PMID:30783333
Conventionally, the medical focus has been either on hair loss or the condition of the scalp in terms of specific dermatological diseases. Indeed, the proximate structural arrangement of the scalp and hair leads to an interdependent relationship between the two. While protective benefits of the hair to the scalp are obvious, the role of the scalp as an incubatory environment for the preemergent hair fiber has largely been ignored. In fact, there is a wealth of observational data on specific dermatological conditions of the scalp providing evidence for the role of the scalp condition in supporting the production of healthy hair. Oxidative stress, the inability of the body to sufficiently counteract the sources of oxidation, is prevalent in many skin conditions, including normal skin aging. On the scalp, the hair appears to be impacted prior to emergence, and oxidative stress appears to play a role in premature hair loss. The scalp commensal organism, Malassezia, has been recognized to be a source of oxidative damage. Therefore, hair care products, specifically shampoos, with active Malassezia inhibitory agents, such as zinc pyrithione, tend to reduce premature hair loss, besides the known benefits in treating specific dermatologic scalp pathologies, and therefore should represent an integral part of every treatment regimen for hair loss, even in individuals not showing symptoms of scalp pathologies.
  22 29,478 211
A new postulate on two stages of dandruff: A clinical perspective
Frederick Manuel, S Ranganathan
January-June 2011, 3(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.82117  PMID:21769228
Dandruff (pityriasis capitis, seborrheic dermatitis confined to the scalp) is a disease that has been around for centuries despite several treatment options. Almost every day new players are entering the market with various antidandruff products, perhaps due to an increase in the incidence of dandruff all over the world. Interestingly, clinicians, especially dermatologists, gave little attention to this problem. At the end, the dandruff sufferer is puzzled by the array of antidandruff products with varied claims entering the market day by day. Why have we not achieved complete treatment success against dandruff? Is dandruff a disease or disorder? It seems that our understanding about dandruff perfectly fits into the famous saying of Albert Einstein, "as the area of light increases, so does the circumferences of darkness." Have dermatologists left dandruff unattended, only to be exploited by the personal care industry?
  22 9,510 263
Use of low-level laser therapy as monotherapy or concomitant therapy for male and female Androgenetic alopecia
Andréia Munck, Maria Fernanda Gavazzoni, Ralph M Trüeb
April-June 2014, 6(2):45-49
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.138584  PMID:25191036
Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb ® , in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Results: Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions: LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth.
  21 18,381 134
Bimatoprost in the treatment of eyelash universalis alopecia areata
Teresa Ojeda Vila, Francisco M Camacho Martinez
July-December 2010, 2(2):86-88
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.77511  PMID:21712909
Objectives: To evaluate topical bimatoprost for eyelash growth in patients with alopecia areata (AA). Design: A 1-year retrospective study, bilateral eyelash alopecia. Materials and Methods: Forty-one subjects with AA universalis without ocular disease applied 0.03% bimatoprost to the eyelid margin once a day over the course of 1 year. Results: Thirty-seven subjects completed the study, one patient was eliminated due to conjunctivitis at the beginning of treatment, two patients developed conjunctivitis after 6 months of treatment, and a fourth did not follow directions. Researchers evaluated patients' eyelash growth every 4 months. We observed complete growth in 24.32%, moderate growth in 18.91%, slight growth in 27.02% and without response in 29.72%. Conclusion: Bimatoprost may be effective and safe in the treatment of eyelash AA. 43.24% of the patients had an acceptable cosmetic response (total and moderate growth). Limitations: Design without control.
  20 11,308 155
Keratosis Pilaris Revisited: Is It More Than Just a Follicular Keratosis?
Mary Thomas, Uday Sharadchandra Khopkar
October-December 2012, 4(4):255-258
DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.111215  PMID:23766609
Background: Keratosis pilaris (KP) is characterized by keratinous plugs in the follicular orifices and varying degrees of perifollicular erythema. The most accepted theory of its pathogenesis proposes defective keratinization of the follicular epithelium resulting in a keratotic infundibular plug. We decided to test this hypothesis by doing dermoscopy of patients diagnosed clinically as keratosis pilaris. Materials and Methods: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of KP seen between September 2011 and December 2011 were included in the study. A clinical history was obtained and examination and dermoscopic evaluation were performed on the lesions of KP. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 6-38 years. Sixteen patients had history of atopy. Nine had concomitant ichthyosis vulgaris. All the 25 patients were found to have coiled hair shafts within the affected follicular infundibula. The hair shafts were extracted with the help of a sterile needle and were found to retain their coiled nature. Perifollicular erythema was seen in 11 patients; perifollicular scaling in 9. Conclusion: Based on our observations and previously documented histological data of KP, we infer that KP may not be a disorder of keratinization, but caused by the circular hair shaft which ruptures the follicular epithelium leading to inflammation and abnormal follicular keratinization.
  20 20,141 143
* Source: CrossRef